People > Thutmose II

Thutmose II

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Thutmose II was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt who ruled during the 18th Dynasty, approximately from 1493 to 1479 BCE. His reign, though relatively short, is notable for its consolidation of power, military campaigns, and significant contributions to the religious and architectural landscape of Egypt. Here is an overview of Thutmose II and his reign:


  1. 18th Dynasty:

    • The 18th Dynasty is one of the most prominent and well-documented periods in ancient Egyptian history, often referred to as part of the New Kingdom. This era is characterized by political stability, military expansion, and cultural flourishing.
    • Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and Queen Mutnofret. He succeeded his father to the throne, continuing the lineage of powerful rulers.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • Thutmose II was married to his half-sister Hatshepsut, who played a significant role during and after his reign. Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and his primary queen, Ahmose.
    • He had a son, Thutmose III, who would later become one of Egypt's greatest pharaohs.

Reign of Thutmose II

  1. Accession to the Throne:

    • Thutmose II ascended to the throne around 1493 BCE, following the death of his father, Thutmose I. His reign is estimated to have lasted about 14 years.
    • His coronation name was "Aakheperenre," which means "Great is the Form of Re."
  2. Military Campaigns:

    • Thutmose II conducted several military campaigns to maintain and expand Egypt's influence. He is known to have led expeditions against the Nubians to the south and the Asiatics to the northeast.
    • His campaigns in Nubia were aimed at quelling rebellions and securing Egypt's southern borders. He also targeted the Shasu Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula to protect Egypt's eastern frontier.
  3. Administrative and Religious Contributions:

    • Thutmose II continued the administrative practices of his predecessors, ensuring the efficient governance of Egypt. He appointed capable officials to key positions and maintained strong control over the country's resources.
    • He made significant contributions to the religious landscape, supporting the priesthood and the construction of temples. He added to the Temple of Amun at Karnak, one of the most important religious centers in Egypt.

Hatshepsut's Influence

  1. Co-Regency and Influence:

    • Hatshepsut, Thutmose II's wife and half-sister, played a prominent role during his reign. She was an influential queen who held significant power and may have acted as a co-regent.
    • After Thutmose II's death, Hatshepsut assumed the role of regent for their young son, Thutmose III, and eventually declared herself pharaoh, ruling as a female king.
  2. Legacy and Succession:

    • Thutmose II's legacy is closely intertwined with that of Hatshepsut. Her remarkable reign overshadowed his, but his contributions laid the groundwork for her successful rule.
    • Thutmose II's son, Thutmose III, later became one of Egypt's most successful and famous pharaohs, known for his military conquests and extensive building projects.

Death and Burial

  1. Death:

    • Thutmose II died around 1479 BCE. The cause of his death is not well-documented, but he was relatively young, leading to speculation about possible health issues or natural causes.
  2. Burial:

    • Thutmose II was buried in the Valley of the Kings, the royal necropolis on the west bank of the Nile near Thebes. His tomb (KV42) was modest compared to those of other pharaohs, possibly due to the relatively short duration of his reign.
    • His mummy was discovered in a cache at Deir el-Bahari, where it had been moved for protection during the Third Intermediate Period.


  1. Historical Significance:

    • Thutmose II's reign, though brief, was marked by efforts to maintain Egypt's stability and territorial integrity. His military campaigns and administrative actions contributed to the security and prosperity of the kingdom.
    • His marriage to Hatshepsut and the subsequent rise of Thutmose III ensured the continuation of a powerful and influential dynasty.
  2. Cultural Impact:

    • The contributions of Thutmose II to Egypt's religious and architectural heritage, including his additions to the Temple of Amun at Karnak, reflect the importance of maintaining and enhancing the religious institutions of the time.
    • His legacy is seen through the accomplishments of his wife Hatshepsut and his son Thutmose III, both of whom left significant marks on Egyptian history.
  3. Archaeological Evidence:

    • The archaeological evidence from Thutmose II's reign includes inscriptions, reliefs, and architectural contributions that provide insights into his rule and the broader context of the 18th Dynasty.
    • His mummy, discovered among other royal mummies, offers valuable information about the burial practices and preservation techniques of ancient Egypt.


Thutmose II, who ruled from approximately 1493 to 1479 BCE, was a pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty known for his military campaigns, administrative contributions, and support for religious institutions. His reign, though short, was marked by efforts to maintain Egypt's stability and territorial integrity. His marriage to Hatshepsut and the succession of his son Thutmose III ensured the continuation of a powerful dynasty. Thutmose II's legacy is reflected in the accomplishments of his wife and son, as well as his contributions to Egypt's religious and architectural heritage.

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