Egyptian People > Anedjib


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Anedjib, also known as Adjib or Enezib, was an early pharaoh of ancient Egypt who ruled during the First Dynasty, approximately around 2920 BCE. His reign is part of the formative period of ancient Egyptian civilization when the foundations of the state and its institutions were being established. Here is an overview of Anedjib and his reign:


  1. First Dynasty:

    • The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt marks the beginning of the dynastic period following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer (often identified with Menes).
    • This period was characterized by the establishment of centralized authority, the development of writing, and significant advancements in art, culture, and architecture.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • Anedjib was the successor of Den, a prominent pharaoh of the First Dynasty, and was likely his son. His mother was possibly Queen Merneith, a significant royal figure who may have acted as regent.
    • He was succeeded by his probable son, Semerkhet.

Reign of Anedjib

  1. Accession to the Throne:

    • Anedjib ascended to the throne after the death of his predecessor, Den. His reign continued the efforts to consolidate and expand the early Egyptian state.
    • He adopted the Horus name "Adjib," which signifies his association with the falcon god Horus, an essential deity in early dynastic Egypt.
  2. Political and Administrative Developments:

    • Anedjib's reign saw the continuation of administrative and political developments initiated by earlier pharaohs. He focused on maintaining centralized control and the effective governance of the newly unified state.
    • He is credited with innovations in royal titulary, including the adoption of the "Two Ladies" title, symbolizing the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under his rule.
  3. Building Projects:

    • Anedjib commissioned several building projects, including construction at the royal necropolis of Abydos, a significant burial site for early dynastic kings.
    • His contributions to architecture and tomb construction reflect the evolving practices in monumental building during the First Dynasty.

Challenges and Achievements

  1. Internal Strife and Succession:

    • Anedjib's reign may have faced challenges related to internal strife and issues of succession. Some evidence suggests there was conflict between him and his successor, Semerkhet.
    • Despite potential challenges, Anedjib maintained the stability of the state and continued the legacy of his predecessors in strengthening centralized authority.
  2. Cultural Contributions:

    • Anedjib's reign contributed to the cultural and artistic developments of early dynastic Egypt. The continued use of hieroglyphic writing and advancements in craftsmanship marked his period.
    • Artifacts from his reign, including seals and inscriptions, provide valuable insights into the administrative practices and royal iconography of the time.

Death and Legacy

  1. Death:

    • Anedjib died after a relatively short reign, estimated to have lasted about ten years. His burial place is traditionally identified as Tomb X at the Umm el-Qa'ab necropolis in Abydos.
  2. Burial:

    • Anedjib's tomb at Abydos reflects the architectural style and burial practices of the early dynastic period. The tomb complex included subsidiary burials, possibly for retainers who accompanied the king in death.
  3. Historical Significance:

    • Anedjib's reign is significant for its role in the ongoing process of state formation in early dynastic Egypt. His efforts to consolidate power and develop royal titulary contributed to the stability and identity of the early Egyptian state.
    • His reign is a continuation of the traditions and practices established by earlier First Dynasty rulers, helping to lay the groundwork for the achievements of subsequent dynasties.
  4. Cultural Impact:

    • The cultural and administrative practices developed during Anedjib's reign influenced the evolution of the Egyptian state and its institutions. His reign is part of the broader narrative of Egypt's early dynastic period, which set the stage for the flourishing of ancient Egyptian civilization.


Anedjib, who ruled around 2920 BCE during the First Dynasty, was an early pharaoh of ancient Egypt known for his contributions to the consolidation of the state and the development of royal titulary. His reign continued the political and cultural advancements initiated by his predecessors, focusing on maintaining centralized authority and stability. Despite potential challenges related to internal strife and succession, Anedjib's reign helped lay the foundations for the future prosperity of the Egyptian state. His burial at Abydos and the artifacts from his reign provide valuable insights into the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt.

King List

NameDates of RuleComments
Narmer/Menes32nd centuryMainstream opinion identifies Narmer with Menes, however a minority of scholars identify Menes with Hor-Aha
Hor-Aha3080 ± 30 BCE (p = 0.32)Comments
Djerc. 3073–3036 BCE41 years
Djet3008–2975 BCE
Merneith3008? 2946–2916 BCE
Den2975–2935-2911 BCE or 2928–2911 BCE19 to 50 years (42 years)
Anedjib2916–2896 BCE20 years
Semerkhet2912–2891 BCE20 years
Qa'a2906–2886 BCE30 years

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