People > Rudamun


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Rudamun was a pharaoh of the 23rd Dynasty, which was part of the Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. His reign is generally dated to around 759–755 BCE. The 23rd Dynasty was a contemporary dynasty that ruled in Upper Egypt alongside the 22nd Dynasty in Lower Egypt, and later the 25th Dynasty. Rudamun's reign followed that of his father, Osorkon III, and he was succeeded by a period of fragmentation and division in Upper Egypt.


  1. 23rd Dynasty:

    • The 23rd Dynasty was based in Thebes and ruled concurrently with other dynasties in Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period, a time characterized by political fragmentation and regional power struggles.
    • The dynasty originated from Libyan chieftains who had settled in Egypt and integrated into Egyptian society, often maintaining Libyan cultural elements.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • Rudamun was the son of Osorkon III, a powerful ruler who had managed to maintain relative stability and control over Upper Egypt.
    • He was the brother of Takelot III, who preceded him as ruler.

Reign of Rudamun

  1. Political and Administrative Challenges:

    • Rudamun’s reign was marked by internal challenges and the gradual fragmentation of central authority in Upper Egypt. The power of local governors and regional rulers increased, leading to a decline in central control.
    • His rule followed a period of relative stability under Osorkon III, but Rudamun faced increasing difficulties in maintaining this stability.
  2. Efforts to Maintain Control:

    • Despite the challenges, Rudamun made efforts to maintain control over Thebes and other important regions in Upper Egypt. He sought to assert his authority through religious and administrative means.
    • He continued to support major religious institutions, particularly the cult of Amun, which played a central role in legitimizing his rule.
  3. Religious Contributions:

    • Rudamun continued the tradition of his predecessors by making contributions to religious institutions and participating in major religious festivals and ceremonies.
    • He is known to have dedicated offerings and built or restored religious monuments, although specific details of his contributions are less well-documented compared to earlier rulers.

Decline and Fragmentation

  1. End of Rudamun's Reign:

    • Rudamun's reign lasted approximately four years, and his death marked the beginning of a period of increased fragmentation in Upper Egypt.
    • Following his death, the central authority in Thebes weakened significantly, leading to the rise of local rulers who claimed power in various regions.
  2. Division of Upper Egypt:

    • After Rudamun's death, Upper Egypt fragmented into smaller, competing polities. This period saw the emergence of several local rulers who established their own autonomous domains.
    • The power vacuum created by the decline of central authority in Thebes contributed to the eventual rise of the 25th Dynasty, which originated from Nubia (Kush) and sought to reunify Egypt.


  1. Historical Significance:

    • Rudamun’s reign is significant for its role in the ongoing political fragmentation of the Third Intermediate Period. His efforts to maintain control highlight the challenges faced by rulers in a time of declining central authority.
    • His reign marks the end of the relative stability provided by his father, Osorkon III, and the beginning of increased regionalism in Upper Egypt.
  2. Cultural and Religious Impact:

    • Despite the political challenges, Rudamun continued to support traditional religious practices and institutions, reflecting the enduring importance of religion in legitimizing and maintaining rule in ancient Egypt.
    • His contributions to religious monuments and institutions, although less documented, played a role in the cultural continuity of the period.
  3. Archaeological Evidence:

    • Evidence of Rudamun’s reign is primarily found in inscriptions and monuments from the period, although they are relatively sparse compared to those of earlier and more prominent rulers.
    • The lack of extensive records from his reign reflects the broader challenges of the Third Intermediate Period, including the decline in monumental building and record-keeping.


Rudamun was a pharaoh of the 23rd Dynasty, ruling from approximately 759 to 755 BCE during the Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. His reign was marked by political fragmentation, economic challenges, and efforts to maintain control over Upper Egypt. Despite the difficulties, he continued to support traditional religious practices and institutions. Rudamun's death led to increased regionalism and the further decline of central authority in Upper Egypt, setting the stage for the rise of the 25th Dynasty. His reign is significant for its role in the ongoing challenges faced by rulers during this period of decline and transition in ancient Egyptian history.

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