People > Nepherites II

Nepherites II

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Nepherites II, also known as Nefaarud II, was a short-reigned pharaoh of ancient Egypt during the late period. He was a ruler of the 29th Dynasty, which was one of the dynasties that struggled to maintain Egypt's independence during a time of considerable internal strife and external threats.

Key Facts about Nepherites II

  1. Reign and Dynasty:

    • Period: Nepherites II reigned for a very short period, approximately in 380 BCE.
    • Dynasty: He was the last pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty, which was based in Mendes, in the Nile Delta region.
  2. Historical Context:

    • Predecessor: Nepherites II succeeded his father, Hakor (Achoris), who had a relatively successful reign marked by efforts to fortify Egypt against Persian aggression.
    • Period of Turmoil: His reign occurred during a turbulent period in Egypt's history, characterized by internal power struggles and external threats, particularly from the Persian Empire.
  3. Brief Reign:

    • Short Rule: Nepherites II's reign lasted only a few months. His brief tenure was marked by a lack of significant achievements or records, making his rule relatively obscure in the historical record.
    • Overthrow: He was overthrown by Nectanebo I, who founded the 30th Dynasty. The exact circumstances of his overthrow are not well documented, but it involved a swift and decisive move by Nectanebo I to seize power.
  4. Significance:

    • End of the 29th Dynasty: Nepherites II's overthrow marked the end of the 29th Dynasty and the beginning of the 30th Dynasty, which would be the last native Egyptian dynasty before the Persian conquest and later, the Macedonian (Hellenistic) rule under Alexander the Great.
    • Transition of Power: His brief rule and rapid overthrow highlight the political instability and frequent power struggles that characterized late period Egypt.


Nepherites II's reign is a minor chapter in the long history of ancient Egypt, notable primarily for marking the end of the 29th Dynasty. His brief and largely ineffective rule contrasts with the subsequent efforts of Nectanebo I and the 30th Dynasty to restore Egypt's strength and independence, even if only temporarily. The transition from the 29th to the 30th Dynasty underscores the continual challenges faced by Egyptian rulers during this period, as they sought to maintain autonomy in the face of external threats and internal dissension.


Nepherites II was a short-lived and relatively obscure pharaoh whose reign ended the 29th Dynasty of Egypt. His brief tenure is a reflection of the turbulent political landscape of late period Egypt, characterized by rapid changes in leadership and ongoing struggles to defend against foreign domination. His legacy, while minimal, serves as a prelude to the more notable achievements of the 30th Dynasty under Nectanebo I.

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