People > Ramesses X

Ramesses X

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Ramesses X was the ninth pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty of ancient Egypt, ruling from approximately 1109 to 1099 BCE. His reign, lasting around a decade, is poorly documented and marked by ongoing economic and political challenges that characterized the later years of the New Kingdom. Here is an overview of Ramesses X and his reign:


  1. 20th Dynasty:

    • The 20th Dynasty was the final dynasty of the New Kingdom period, a time marked by both grand achievements and eventual decline.
    • Ramesses X succeeded Ramesses IX, inheriting a kingdom already facing significant economic difficulties, social unrest, and administrative corruption.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • The exact details of Ramesses X’s lineage are unclear, but he was likely related to his predecessor, Ramesses IX, possibly as a son or a close relative. He was part of the extended royal family that included several rulers named Ramesses.

Reign of Ramesses X

  1. Economic and Administrative Challenges:

    • The economic difficulties that plagued the reigns of his predecessors continued during Ramesses X’s rule. Issues such as inflation, grain shortages, and administrative inefficiencies persisted.
    • Corruption within the bureaucracy and the weakening of central authority made it challenging to address these economic problems effectively.
  2. Tomb Robberies and Law Enforcement:

    • Tomb robberies, which had been a significant issue during the reign of Ramesses IX, continued to be a problem during Ramesses X’s rule. The lack of effective law enforcement and the economic pressures on the population contributed to the prevalence of these crimes.
    • Documents from this period, such as the Abbott Papyrus, indicate ongoing investigations into tomb robberies, but the effectiveness of these efforts was limited.
  3. Building Projects and Monuments:

    • Due to the economic constraints and administrative challenges, Ramesses X undertook few significant building projects. The focus during his reign was more on maintaining existing structures and ensuring the continuation of religious practices.
    • His contributions to monumental architecture were minimal compared to earlier pharaohs of the New Kingdom.
  4. Religious Activities:

    • Despite the economic and administrative difficulties, Ramesses X continued to support traditional religious practices and the powerful priesthood of Amun. He made offerings to temples and participated in religious ceremonies.
    • The continued importance of religious institutions played a crucial role in maintaining social and cultural stability during his reign.

Death and Burial

  1. Death:

    • Ramesses X died around 1099 BCE, marking the end of his relatively short and troubled reign. He was succeeded by his son, Ramesses XI.
  2. Burial:

    • The exact location of Ramesses X's tomb remains uncertain. It is possible that he was buried in the Valley of the Kings, but no tomb has been conclusively identified as his.
    • The uncertain fate of his tomb reflects the broader instability and decline of the period.


  1. Historical Significance:

    • Ramesses X's reign is significant for highlighting the ongoing challenges faced by late New Kingdom pharaohs, including economic decline, administrative corruption, and social unrest.
    • His rule is part of the broader narrative of the New Kingdom’s decline, leading to the eventual transition to the Third Intermediate Period.
  2. Cultural and Religious Impact:

    • Despite the challenges, Ramesses X maintained support for traditional religious practices and the priesthood, reflecting the resilience of Egyptian cultural and religious traditions during a time of decline.
    • His reign underscores the importance of religious institutions in providing continuity and stability during periods of political and economic turmoil.
  3. Archaeological Evidence:

    • The limited records and inscriptions from Ramesses X's reign provide valuable insights into the economic and administrative conditions of the time. Documents such as the Abbott Papyrus highlight the ongoing issues with tomb robberies and the efforts to address them.
    • The lack of significant monumental architecture and detailed records reflects the broader decline of the New Kingdom during his rule.


Ramesses X, the ninth pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty, ruled from approximately 1109 to 1099 BCE. His reign was marked by significant economic difficulties, administrative challenges, and ongoing issues with tomb robberies. Despite these challenges, he continued to support traditional religious practices and the powerful priesthood of Amun. The limited records and lack of significant building projects during his reign highlight the broader decline of the New Kingdom. Ramesses X’s reign is an important part of the history of the late New Kingdom, providing insights into the struggles faced by Egypt during this period of decline and transition.

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