Egyptian People > Babaef II

Babaef II

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Babaef II, also known as Prince Khaemsekhmet, was an ancient Egyptian noble who lived during the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, around the 26th century BCE. He was a prominent figure and member of the royal family, known primarily for his high-ranking positions and his impressive tomb, which provides valuable insights into the art, culture, and administration of the time.


  1. 4th Dynasty:

    • The 4th Dynasty is one of the most notable periods in ancient Egyptian history, often referred to as part of the Old Kingdom or the "Age of the Pyramids." This era is marked by the construction of some of the most famous pyramids, including those at Giza.
    • Pharaohs such as Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure ruled during this period, overseeing significant developments in architecture, administration, and culture.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • Babaef II, also known as Prince Khaemsekhmet, was a member of the royal family. He was the grandson of Pharaoh Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
    • His father was either Khafre or an unidentified son of Khufu, making him part of the elite ruling class of the 4th Dynasty.

Positions and Titles

  1. High-Ranking Official:

    • Babaef II held several important titles and positions within the royal administration. He was a vizier, which was one of the highest-ranking positions in ancient Egypt, acting as the pharaoh’s chief advisor and administrator.
    • His titles included "Chief Justice," "Vizier," and "Overseer of All Royal Works," indicating his significant influence and responsibilities in the royal court.
  2. Architectural Contributions:

    • As "Overseer of All Royal Works," Babaef II would have been responsible for supervising major construction projects, including pyramids, temples, and other monumental structures.
    • His involvement in these projects underscores his importance and the trust placed in him by the pharaoh.

Tomb of Babaef II

  1. Mastaba at Giza:

    • Babaef II's tomb, located in the Eastern Cemetery of the Giza Plateau, is a mastaba, a type of flat-roofed, rectangular tomb with sloping sides. This was a common tomb structure for elite individuals during the Old Kingdom.
    • The mastaba of Babaef II is notable for its size, elaborate decoration, and the quality of its construction, reflecting his high status and the resources available to him.
  2. Decoration and Inscriptions:

    • The tomb features extensive wall reliefs and inscriptions that provide valuable information about Babaef II’s life, titles, and family. These decorations depict scenes of daily life, religious rituals, and offerings, offering insights into the culture and beliefs of the time.
    • Inscriptions within the tomb highlight Babaef II’s various titles and accomplishments, emphasizing his significant role in the administration and construction projects of the 4th Dynasty.


  1. Historical Significance:

    • Babaef II’s life and career provide important insights into the administration and social hierarchy of the Old Kingdom. His high-ranking positions and the responsibilities he held illustrate the complexities of royal administration during this period.
    • His tomb at Giza is a key archaeological site, offering a wealth of information about the art, culture, and religious practices of the 4th Dynasty.
  2. Cultural Impact:

    • The artistic and architectural features of Babaef II’s tomb reflect the high level of craftsmanship and the aesthetic values of the Old Kingdom. The tomb’s decorations are significant examples of the art and iconography of ancient Egypt.
    • As a member of the royal family and a high-ranking official, Babaef II contributed to the continuity and stability of the Egyptian state during one of its most prosperous periods.


Babaef II, also known as Prince Khaemsekhmet, was a prominent noble and high-ranking official during the 4th Dynasty of ancient Egypt. He held significant titles, including vizier and overseer of royal works, reflecting his influence and responsibilities in the royal administration. His impressive mastaba tomb at Giza, with its elaborate decorations and inscriptions, provides valuable insights into the art, culture, and governance of the Old Kingdom. Babaef II’s legacy highlights the importance of elite officials in maintaining the stability and prosperity of ancient Egypt during the age of the pyramids.

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Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3

Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings Volume III: Memphis, Part I Abu Rawash to Abusir. 2nd edition (revised and augmented by Dr Jaromir Malek, 1974.

Dunham, Dows. "An Alabaster Statuette of Prince Khnum-baf." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 37, No. 224 (December 1939), pp. 117-118.

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