People > Hotepibre


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Hotepibre was an ancient Egyptian ruler during the Second Intermediate Period, a time characterized by political fragmentation and the division of Egypt into several competing polities. His reign is generally placed within the 13th Dynasty, which was part of the broader period of instability that followed the collapse of the Middle Kingdom. Although specific details about Hotepibre’s reign are sparse due to the limited historical and archaeological records from this era, here is an overview of what is known about Hotepibre and his significance:


  1. Second Intermediate Period:

    • The Second Intermediate Period (circa 1782–1570 BCE) was marked by the disintegration of centralized power in Egypt, leading to the rise of multiple rival dynasties and the invasion of the Hyksos, a foreign Semitic people who established their rule in the northern part of Egypt.
    • The 13th Dynasty, to which Hotepibre belonged, was one of the several dynasties that ruled concurrently, primarily controlling Upper Egypt from their base in Thebes or other southern cities.
  2. 13th Dynasty:

    • The 13th Dynasty succeeded the 12th Dynasty and is considered part of the Middle Kingdom by some scholars, though it is more commonly associated with the early Second Intermediate Period.
    • This dynasty was marked by frequent changes in rulers, often with relatively short reigns, reflecting the instability of the period.

Reign of Hotepibre

  1. Chronology and Duration:

    • Hotepibre's exact position within the 13th Dynasty and the length of his reign are not precisely known. He is often listed as one of the many short-lived rulers of the dynasty.
    • Due to the lack of detailed records, the chronology of the 13th Dynasty remains uncertain, with many kings known only from fragmentary evidence.
  2. Titles and Names:

    • Hotepibre’s name, which means "Satisfied is the heart of Ra," reflects the traditional theophoric naming convention, invoking the sun god Ra.
    • His full royal titulary is not well-documented, and much of what is known about him comes from references in king lists and sparse archaeological finds.

Achievements and Contributions

  1. Political Context:

    • During Hotepibre's reign, the 13th Dynasty was struggling to maintain control over its territories amid the rise of the Hyksos in the north and competing local rulers in the south.
    • His reign likely involved efforts to stabilize his realm, manage resources, and maintain the loyalty of local officials and governors.
  2. Economic and Administrative Activities:

    • Like other kings of the 13th Dynasty, Hotepibre would have overseen the administration of his territories, focusing on agricultural production, trade, and taxation to sustain the kingdom's economy.
    • Administrative documents, though scarce, suggest that the rulers of this period continued to employ traditional bureaucratic practices despite the political fragmentation.

Archaeological Evidence

  1. Inscriptions and Monuments:

    • The primary evidence for Hotepibre’s reign comes from inscriptions and fragmented monuments. These often include references to his name and titles but provide limited details about his achievements.
    • Artefacts such as scarabs (small carved amulets) bearing his name have been discovered, helping to confirm his existence and place within the dynasty.
  2. King Lists:

    • Hotepibre is mentioned in several ancient Egyptian king lists, such as the Turin King List, which provides a chronological framework for the rulers of the Second Intermediate Period.
    • These lists, while valuable, are often incomplete and damaged, leading to gaps and uncertainties in the historical record.

Legacy and Impact

  1. Historical Significance:

    • Hotepibre's reign, like those of many 13th Dynasty kings, is significant for understanding the political and social dynamics of the Second Intermediate Period.
    • His rule exemplifies the challenges faced by Egyptian rulers during a time of political fragmentation and external threats.
  2. Cultural Continuity:

    • Despite the instability, the period saw a continuation of traditional Egyptian cultural and religious practices. Kings like Hotepibre maintained the ideological and religious framework of kingship, invoking the gods and seeking to legitimize their rule through traditional means.


Hotepibre was a ruler of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt, a time marked by political fragmentation and instability. While specific details about his reign are limited, Hotepibre is known from inscriptions, scarabs, and king lists, reflecting his role in the complex and tumultuous history of this era. His reign highlights the challenges faced by Egyptian rulers in maintaining control and stability amid competing dynasties and external threats. Despite the limited historical record, Hotepibre's reign contributes to the understanding of the broader political and social dynamics of the Second Intermediate Period.


Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 120-121

K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800-1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997

Labib Habachi: Khatâ'na-Qantîr: Importance in Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte, Nr. 52 (1952), p. 460

Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt 1964, p. 39–40, 231–32 (XIII 8)

Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46, Mainz am Rhein (1997)

Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, in Orientalia 57 (1988)

Ryholt (1997), pp. 73, 208, 214-215 and 284, p. 338, File 13/6

yholt, K. "Hotepibre - A Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 311, 1998, pp. 1–6.

Matthiae, Paolo (2010). Ebla. La città del trono (in Italian). Einaudi. pp. 218; 303; 349. ISBN 978-88-06-20258-3.

Matthiae, Paolo (1997). "Ebla and Syria in the Middle Bronze Age". In Oren, Eliezer D. The Hyksos: new historical and archaeological perspectives. The University of Philadelphia, The University Museum. ISBN 0924171464., pp. 397-398.

Sabalico Logo
Sabalytics Logo
World Map Logo
rStatistics Logo
Time Zone Logo
Galaxy View Logo
Periodic Table Logo
My Location Logo
Weather Track Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website Tools Logo
Image Tools Logo
Color Tools Logo
Text Tools Logo
Finance Tools Logo
File Tools Logo
Data Tools Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo