People > Psammuthes


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Psammuthes, also known as Psammuthis, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt during the early part of the 29th Dynasty. His reign was brief and not well-documented, which makes his rule one of the less understood periods in Egyptian history. Here is an overview of Psammuthes and his reign:


  1. 29th Dynasty:

    • The 29th Dynasty (c. 399–380 BCE) was part of the Late Period of ancient Egypt, which followed the decline of the powerful 26th Dynasty and subsequent Persian domination.
    • This period was characterized by internal strife, short reigns of various pharaohs, and efforts to regain and consolidate Egyptian independence from Persian control.
  2. Family and Lineage:

    • Details about Psammuthes' lineage and early life are sparse. It is believed that he may have been connected to other prominent families or rulers of the 29th Dynasty.

Reign of Psammuthes

  1. Accession to the Throne:

    • Psammuthes came to power around 392 BCE, succeeding Nepherites I. His rise to power may have involved internal conflict or power struggles, which were common in the late period.
    • His reign lasted for about one year, indicating the instability and short-lived nature of rulership during this time.
  2. Political Context:

    • The early 29th Dynasty was marked by significant political instability, with frequent changes in leadership and ongoing conflicts with external powers, particularly the Persians.
    • Psammuthes' brief reign likely reflected these turbulent times, with challenges in maintaining control and authority.

Challenges and Downfall

  1. Short Reign:

    • Psammuthes' reign lasted for approximately one year, a period too short to achieve significant reforms or undertake substantial building projects.
    • His brief tenure suggests he may have faced considerable opposition from rival factions or military leaders.
  2. Succession and Overthrow:

    • Psammuthes was succeeded by Hakor (also known as Achoris), who is believed to have overthrown him. Hakor went on to have a relatively longer and more stable reign, contributing to the 29th Dynasty's efforts to maintain Egyptian independence.
    • The transition between Psammuthes and Hakor likely involved internal conflict and power struggles typical of the period.

Legacy and Historical Significance

  1. Historical Records:

    • Due to the brief and turbulent nature of his reign, Psammuthes left behind few records or monuments. Most of what is known about him comes from later historical sources and limited archaeological evidence.
    • The lack of substantial records makes it difficult to assess the full extent of his contributions or policies.
  2. Political Impact:

    • Although his reign was short, Psammuthes' time on the throne reflects the broader challenges faced by the 29th Dynasty in maintaining stability and resisting external pressures.
    • His overthrow and the subsequent rise of Hakor highlight the volatile nature of Egyptian politics during the Late Period.


Psammuthes was a pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty, ruling for a brief period around 392 BCE. His reign was marked by political instability and internal strife, common characteristics of the Late Period in ancient Egypt. Psammuthes' short time on the throne suggests he faced significant opposition, and he was eventually overthrown by Hakor. Due to the brevity and turbulence of his rule, there are few records or monuments associated with Psammuthes, making his reign one of the less understood periods in Egyptian history. His legacy lies in the context of the ongoing efforts of the 29th Dynasty to maintain Egyptian independence and stability amidst a backdrop of internal and external challenges.

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