Egyptian Dynasties > Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt

Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


See the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

The Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt, also spelled as the 22nd Dynasty or Dynasty XXII of Egypt was a dynasty of ethnic Meshwesh Libyans who ruled over the region from around 943 BCE and 720 BCE during the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. The 22nd Dynasty was known to have been based around the city of Tanis where most of the royal tombs have been uncovered. This dynasty was also mentioned by the Egyptian historian named Manetho who stated the dynasty originated out of Bubastis.

The Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Libyan Dynasty, was a period of foreign rule in ancient Egyptian history. Here's an overview:

  1. Duration and Context: The Twenty-Second Dynasty lasted from approximately 945 BCE to 715 BCE. It followed the decline of the New Kingdom and the subsequent political fragmentation of Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period.

  2. Libyan Conquest: The Twenty-Second Dynasty began with the conquest of Egypt by the Meshwesh, a Libyan tribe from the western desert. The Meshwesh established their capital at Bubastis in the eastern Nile Delta and founded the Twenty-Second Dynasty.

  3. Shoshenq I: The most prominent ruler of the Twenty-Second Dynasty was Shoshenq I (also known as Shoshenq I or Shoshenk I). He is believed to have ascended to the throne around 943 BCE and initiated a period of stability and centralization in Egypt.

  4. Military Campaigns: Shoshenq I and his successors engaged in military campaigns to expand their territory and assert Egyptian control over neighboring regions. Shoshenq I campaigned in the Levant, where he is believed to have captured the city of Jerusalem and plundered its treasures, as depicted on the Bubastite Portal in Karnak.

  5. Cultural and Religious Policies: Despite being of Libyan origin, the rulers of the Twenty-Second Dynasty adopted many aspects of Egyptian culture and religion. They continued to worship Egyptian gods and goddesses and maintained the traditional administrative and religious institutions of Egypt.

  6. Monuments and Inscriptions: The Twenty-Second Dynasty saw the construction of monuments and the production of inscriptions that reflected the power and authority of the Libyan rulers. These included temple constructions and reliefs that depicted the pharaohs making offerings to the gods and engaging in traditional royal rituals.

  7. Dynastic Complexities: The Twenty-Second Dynasty was marked by dynastic complexities and rivalries. Various branches of the royal family vied for power and influence, leading to periods of internal conflict and fragmentation within Egypt.

  8. End of the Dynasty: The Twenty-Second Dynasty eventually came to an end due to internal strife and external pressures. Its decline marked the transition into the subsequent Twenty-Third Dynasty and the broader societal upheaval of the Third Intermediate Period.

In summary, the Twenty-Second Dynasty of Egypt represents a period of foreign rule and political consolidation during the Third Intermediate Period. Its rulers, originating from the Libyan tribes, played a significant role in shaping the political, cultural, and religious landscape of ancient Egypt during this era.

22nd Dynasty Kings

King NameHorus NameReignConsort
Shoshenq IHedjkheperre-Setepenre943–922 BCEPatareshnes
Karomama A
Osorkon ISekhemkheperre-Setepenre922–887 BCEMaatkare B
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq IIHeqakheperre-Setepenre887–885 BCENesitanebetashru
Takelot IHedjkheperre-Setepenre885–872 BCEKapes
Osorkon IIUsermaatre-Setepenamun872–837 BCEIsetemkheb G
Karomama B
Shoshenq IIIUsermaatre-Setepenre837–798 BCETadibast II
Shoshenq IVHedjkheperre-Setepenre798–785 BCEConsort
PamiUsermaatre-Setepenamun785–778 BCEConsort
Shoshenq VAkheperre778–740 BCEConsort
Pedubast IISehetepibenre740–730 BCETadibast III
Osorkon IVUsermaatre730–716 BCEConsort

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt



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