Egyptian Dynasties > Twenty-Ninth Dynasty of Egypt

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty of Egypt

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty of Egypt, also spelled 29th Dynasty or Dynasty XXIX was an ethnic Egyptian dynasty founded by Nepherites I who was able to defeat the previous ruler of the Twenty-Eighth Dynasty of Egypt named Amyrtaeus in open conflict. He was able to capture the previous king of Egypt and brought him to Memphis, where he was executed and his dynasty ended. Nepherites I then moved the capital of Egypt to a city called Mendes.

The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty of Egypt was a short-lived period of foreign rule during the Late Period of ancient Egyptian history. Here's an overview:

  1. Duration and Context: The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty lasted from approximately 399 BCE to 380 BCE. It was a time of political upheaval and transition in Egypt, following the decline of the Saite Dynasty and the end of native Egyptian rule.

  2. Persian Conquest: The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty began with the conquest of Egypt by the Achaemenid Persian Empire under the rule of King Artaxerxes II. The Persians defeated the last Saite ruler, Amyrtaeus, and brought Egypt back under their control.

  3. Satrapy of Egypt: Egypt became a satrapy, or province, of the Persian Empire once again. The Persians appointed satraps, or governors, to administer the region on behalf of the Persian king. These governors were often selected from the Persian nobility and were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining order, and overseeing local administration.

  4. Cultural and Religious Policies: The Persian rulers generally allowed Egypt to maintain its distinct cultural and religious traditions. They continued to worship Egyptian gods and goddesses alongside Persian deities, and they maintained the traditional administrative and religious institutions of Egypt.

  5. Art and Architecture: The art and architecture of the Twenty-Ninth Dynasty continued to reflect Egyptian traditions, although there was also some influence from Persian artistic styles. Temples and monuments were still constructed during this period, although they often incorporated elements of both Egyptian and Persian design.

  6. Resistance and Revolts: Throughout the Twenty-Ninth Dynasty, there were sporadic revolts and uprisings against Persian rule. Some Egyptians sought to overthrow their Persian overlords and restore native rule, while others collaborated with the Persians in exchange for positions of power and privilege.

  7. End of the Dynasty: The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty came to an end with the conquest of Egypt by the Persian king Artaxerxes III in 380 BCE. Artaxerxes III suppressed a major revolt in Egypt and reasserted Persian control over the region.

  8. Legacy: Although the Twenty-Ninth Dynasty was relatively short-lived, it played a significant role in Egypt's history as part of the larger narrative of foreign domination and conquest. Its legacy is evident in the continued influence of Persian culture and administration on Egypt during this period.

King NameHorus-NameReignConsort
Nepherites I398-393 BCE
Psammuthes393 BCE
Hakor (Achoris)393-380 BCE
Nepherites II380 BCE

Late Period of Egypt



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