Egyptian Dynasties > Twenty-Fourth Dynasty of Egypt

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty of Egypt

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Sais Dynasty, was a short-lived period of political revival and cultural renaissance during the Third Intermediate Period. Here's an overview:

  1. Duration and Context: The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty ruled Egypt from approximately 732 BCE to 720 BCE, following the collapse of the Kushite or Nubian Dynasty (Twenty-Fifth Dynasty) and preceding the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty's brief return to power. It was a time of transition and uncertainty as various regional powers vied for control over Egypt.

  2. Founding and Capital: The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty was founded by Tefnakht I, a ruler of Libyan descent who established his capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta. Sais became an important political and cultural center during this period, rivaling other cities such as Thebes and Memphis.

  3. Consolidation of Power: Tefnakht I and his successors, particularly his son Bakenranef (also known as Bocchoris), sought to consolidate their power and assert control over Egypt's fragmented political landscape. They employed diplomatic strategies and military force to expand their influence and establish themselves as legitimate rulers.

  4. Cultural Renaissance: The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty witnessed a cultural revival, with Sais becoming a center of learning and intellectual activity. The rulers of the dynasty patronized the arts, literature, and religious institutions, fostering a resurgence of Egyptian cultural identity and traditions.

  5. Foreign Relations: The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty maintained diplomatic relations with neighboring regions, including the Assyrian Empire and other Near Eastern powers. These diplomatic efforts aimed to secure Egypt's borders and protect the country from foreign incursions.

  6. Decline and End: The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty came to an end with the conquest of Egypt by the Nubian king Piye (Piankhi) of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. Piye's invasion marked the beginning of the Nubian control over Egypt, known as the Nubian or Kushite Dynasty.

  7. Legacy: Despite its relatively short duration, the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty left a lasting legacy on Egyptian history. The rulers of the dynasty, particularly Tefnakht I and Bakenranef, played a significant role in reviving Egyptian political and cultural institutions during a time of transition and uncertainty. Sais, the capital of the dynasty, remained an important cultural and religious center in Egypt for centuries to come.

In summary, the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty of Egypt was a period of political revival and cultural renaissance during the Third Intermediate Period. Its rulers, particularly Tefnakht I and Bakenranef, sought to assert control over Egypt and promote a resurgence of Egyptian cultural identity and traditions. Despite its eventual conquest by the Nubian king Piye, the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty left a lasting legacy on Egyptian history and culture.

The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty was a short-lived group of pharaohs who had their capital at Sais in the western Nile Delta. The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty are as follows:

King NameHorus-NameReignConsort
Tefnakhte I732-725 BCE
Bakenranef (Bocchoris)725-720 BCE

Tefnakht I

Tefnakht I formed an alliance of the Delta kinglets, with whose support he attempted to conquer Upper Egypt; his campaign attracted the attention of the Nubian king, Piye, who recorded his conquest and subjection of Tefnakhte of Sais and his peers in a well-known inscription. Tefnakht is always called the "Great Chief of the West" in Piye's Victory stela and in two stelas dating to the regnal years 36 and 38 of Shoshenq V. It is uncertain if he ever adopted an official royal title. However, Olivier Perdu,[1] has now argued that a certain Shepsesre Tefnakhte of Sais was not, in fact, Piye's famous nemesis.

Perdu published a recently discovered donation stela which came from a private collection; the document is dated to Year 2 of Necho I of Sais and is similar in style, epigraphy and text with the donation stela of Shepsesre. However, Perdu's arguments are not accepted by most Egyptologists at present who believe that the Year 8 Shepsesre Tefnakht Athens stela was most likely Tefnakht I. The later king Tefnakht II, if he existed, would have been a close predecessor of Necho I. Both Tefnakht II and Necho I ruled as local Saite kings during the Nubian era under Taharqa.


Tefnakht I's successor, Bakenranef, definitely assumed the throne of Sais and took the royal name Wahkare. His authority was recognised in much of the Delta including Memphis where several Year 5 and Year 6 Serapeum stelas from his reign have been found. This Dynasty came to a sudden end when Shabaka, the second king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, attacked Sais, captured Bakenrenef and burned him alive.

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt



Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Sabalico Logo
Sabalytics Logo
World Map Logo
rStatistics Logo
Time Zone Logo
Galaxy View Logo
Periodic Table Logo
My Location Logo
Weather Track Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website Tools Logo
Image Tools Logo
Color Tools Logo
Text Tools Logo
Finance Tools Logo
File Tools Logo
Data Tools Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo