Egyptian Nomes > Tu-ph


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


The ancient Egyptian nome of Tu-ph, also known as the "Aphroditopolis Nome" or the 22nd nome of Upper Egypt, played a significant role due to its strategic location, religious importance, and economic contributions.

Key Features of the Nome of Tu-ph (Aphroditopolis Nome):

  1. Geographical Location:

    • The nome of Tu-ph was located in Upper Egypt, centered around the city of Aphroditopolis, known in ancient Egyptian as Per-Hathor or Per-Nefer.
    • This region was situated along the Nile River, benefiting from fertile agricultural lands and its strategic position within Upper Egypt.
  2. Capital City (Aphroditopolis):

    • The capital city of the Tu-ph Nome was Aphroditopolis, which translates to "City of Aphrodite" in Greek. In ancient Egyptian, it was referred to as Per-Hathor, meaning "House of Hathor."
    • Aphroditopolis served as a significant administrative, religious, and economic center within the nome.
  3. Religious Significance:

    • The primary deity worshipped in Aphroditopolis was Hathor, the goddess of love, beauty, music, and motherhood. Hathor was often depicted as a woman with cow horns and a solar disk, or as a cow.
    • Hathor was associated with fertility and agricultural prosperity, reflecting the nome's economic activities. The city had significant temples and shrines dedicated to Hathor, making it a central hub for her worship.
    • The nome was also associated with the worship of other deities, including Horus and Osiris, emphasizing the region's diverse religious landscape.
  4. Economic Importance:

    • The fertile lands of the Tu-ph Nome supported extensive agricultural activities, including the cultivation of grains, fruits, vegetables, and flax. This agricultural productivity was crucial for the local economy and food supply.
    • The nome's strategic location along the Nile made it a vital hub for trade and commerce. Goods from Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, and neighboring regions passed through the nome, contributing to its economic prosperity.
    • The city was known for its production of textiles and other goods, which were highly valued throughout Egypt.
  5. Historical Development:

    • The nome of Tu-ph has a long history dating back to the early dynastic periods of Egypt. Its significance continued throughout ancient Egyptian history, including the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
    • During the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1070 BCE), the nome saw significant development, with pharaohs constructing temples and other monuments in the region to honor Hathor.
    • The nome's importance persisted into the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, further solidifying its status as a key religious and economic center.
  6. Cultural Contributions:

    • The Tu-ph Nome was a center of cultural and intellectual activity. The city's artisans, scribes, and priests played essential roles in the preservation and transmission of knowledge, particularly in the fields of religion, art, and literature.
    • Religious festivals and ceremonies dedicated to Hathor and other deities were significant cultural events, reflecting the deeply rooted religious traditions of the region.
    • The nome's cultural contributions included advancements in agricultural techniques and craftsmanship, which were highly valued throughout Egypt.
  7. Archaeological Discoveries:

    • Excavations in Aphroditopolis and the surrounding areas have uncovered numerous artifacts, including statues, stelae, temple remains, and inscriptions. These findings provide valuable insights into the religious practices, daily life, and historical development of the region.
    • Significant archaeological discoveries include the remains of temples dedicated to Hathor and other deities, as well as richly decorated tombs and reliefs depicting various aspects of ancient Egyptian life.
  8. Strategic and Military Importance:

    • Due to its strategic location along the Nile, the Tu-ph Nome was an important center for trade and military expeditions. The city's position allowed it to control and facilitate trade routes between Upper and Lower Egypt, as well as with neighboring regions.
    • The control of the Tu-ph Nome was vital for maintaining security and stability in Upper Egypt and for protecting the valuable agricultural and economic resources of the region.

The nome of Tu-ph, with its capital at Aphroditopolis, played a crucial role in the religious, economic, and strategic landscape of ancient Egypt. Its association with the worship of Hathor, its agricultural productivity, and its strategic location underscored its significance throughout Egyptian history. The cultural and religious contributions of the Tu-ph Nome, along with its economic and strategic importance, made it an essential center for the political, cultural, and spiritual life of ancient Egypt.


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