Egyptian Nomes > Kha


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


The ancient Egyptian nome of Kha, also known as the "Plough" or "Ox-Driving Nome," was the 6th nome of Upper Egypt. This nome held significant importance due to its strategic location, religious significance, and economic contributions.

Key Features of the Nome of Kha (Plough Nome):

  1. Geographical Location:

    • The nome of Kha was located in Upper Egypt, encompassing the area around the modern city of Qena.
    • This region was situated along the Nile River, benefiting from fertile agricultural lands and serving as a key point of connection between Upper and Lower Egypt.
  2. Capital City (Diospolis Parva):

    • The capital city of the Kha Nome was Diospolis Parva, known in ancient Egyptian as Hu or Hut-Hery-ib.
    • Diospolis Parva served as a significant administrative, religious, and economic center within the nome.
  3. Religious Significance:

    • The primary deity worshipped in the Kha Nome was Hathor, the goddess of love, beauty, music, and motherhood. Hathor was often depicted as a cow or a woman with cow horns and a solar disk.
    • Temples and shrines dedicated to Hathor played a central role in the religious life of the nome, attracting worshippers from across the region. Hathor was particularly associated with fertility and agricultural prosperity, reflecting the nome's economic activities.
    • Other deities worshipped in the nome included Horus and Osiris, emphasizing the region's diverse religious landscape.
  4. Economic Importance:

    • The fertile lands of the Kha Nome supported extensive agricultural activities, including the cultivation of grains, vegetables, and flax. This agricultural productivity was crucial for the local economy and food supply.
    • The nome's strategic location along the Nile made it a vital hub for trade and commerce. Goods from Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, and neighboring regions passed through the nome, contributing to its economic prosperity.
    • The presence of key trade routes, including caravan routes and waterways, facilitated the movement of goods and people, enhancing the nome's economic significance.
  5. Historical Development:

    • The nome of Kha has a long history dating back to the early dynastic periods of Egypt. Its significance continued throughout ancient Egyptian history, including the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
    • During the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-1650 BCE) and New Kingdom (c. 1550-1070 BCE), the nome saw significant development, with pharaohs constructing temples and other monuments in the region.
    • The nome's importance persisted into the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, further solidifying its status as a key religious and economic center.
  6. Cultural Contributions:

    • The Kha Nome was a center of cultural and intellectual activity. The city's artisans, scribes, and priests played essential roles in the preservation and transmission of knowledge, particularly in the fields of religion, art, and literature.
    • Religious festivals and ceremonies dedicated to Hathor and other deities were significant cultural events, reflecting the deeply rooted religious traditions of the region.
    • The nome's cultural contributions included advancements in agricultural techniques and craftsmanship, which were highly valued throughout Egypt.
  7. Archaeological Discoveries:

    • Excavations in the Kha Nome, particularly around Diospolis Parva, have uncovered numerous artifacts, including statues, stelae, temple remains, and inscriptions. These findings provide valuable insights into the religious practices, daily life, and historical development of the region.
    • Significant archaeological discoveries include the remains of temples dedicated to Hathor and other deities, as well as richly decorated tombs and reliefs depicting various aspects of ancient Egyptian life.
  8. Strategic and Military Importance:

    • Due to its strategic location along the Nile, the Kha Nome was an important center for trade and military expeditions. The city's position allowed it to control and facilitate trade routes between Upper and Lower Egypt, as well as with neighboring regions.
    • The control of the Kha Nome was vital for maintaining security and stability in Upper Egypt and for protecting the valuable agricultural and economic resources of the region.

The nome of Kha, with its capital at Diospolis Parva, played a crucial role in the religious, economic, and strategic landscape of ancient Egypt. Its association with the worship of Hathor, its agricultural productivity, and its strategic location underscored its significance throughout Egyptian history. The cultural and religious contributions of the Kha Nome, along with its economic and strategic importance, made it an essential center for the political, cultural, and spiritual life of ancient Egypt.

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