Egyptian Nomes > Lower Egypt Nomes

Lower Egypt Nomes

Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


The nomes of ancient Lower Egypt were administrative regions in the northern part of ancient Egypt, primarily encompassing the Nile Delta. Unlike the nomes of Upper Egypt, which had more defined borders and were more stable, the boundaries and number of nomes in Lower Egypt could change more frequently due to the delta's shifting geography and political dynamics. Traditionally, Lower Egypt was divided into 20 nomes.

Here are some key features and notable nomes of ancient Lower Egypt:

  1. Geographical Context:

    • Lower Egypt refers to the northern part of ancient Egypt, encompassing the fertile Nile Delta region where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
    • The delta region is characterized by its rich agricultural land, numerous waterways, and frequent changes in the landscape due to the Nile's annual flooding.
  2. Administrative and Political Role:

    • The nomes in Lower Egypt were crucial for local governance, tax collection, agricultural management, and maintaining order.
    • Each nome was overseen by a nomarch, an official who reported directly to the pharaoh and was responsible for the administration, justice, and defense of the nome.
  3. Religious and Cultural Significance:

    • Many nomes in Lower Egypt had significant religious centers and temples dedicated to various deities.
    • Each nome had its own patron deities and unique religious practices, contributing to the diverse religious landscape of ancient Egypt.
  4. Notable Nomes of Lower Egypt:

    • Nome 1 (Ineb-Hedj, "White Walls"): This nome included the ancient capital of Memphis, a major political and religious center. Memphis was home to the great temple of Ptah, a chief deity associated with creation and craftsmanship.

    • Nome 2 (Khem, "Letopolis"): Letopolis was an important religious center dedicated to the god Khenty-imentiu, an early form of Osiris.

    • Nome 3 (Khent-mehi, "North of the Wall"): Known for its strong association with the goddess Bastet, whose major cult center was in Bubastis. Bubastis was a significant city and a popular pilgrimage site.

    • Nome 4 (Zaru, "East Door"): Located in the eastern part of the delta, it served as a critical border region and trade hub with connections to the Sinai Peninsula and Asia.

    • Nome 5 (Sap-meh, "Foremost of the Fish"): This nome included the city of Sais, which was an important cultural and religious center, especially during the Late Period. The goddess Neith, a war and weaving deity, was prominently worshipped here.

    • Nome 6 (Men-nefer, "Enduring and Beautiful"): Another nome encompassing the area around Memphis, contributing to the city's extensive influence and wealth.

    • Nome 7 (Xois, "Xois Nome"): Xois, the capital city of this nome, was situated in the central delta and served as an administrative and religious center.

    • Nome 8 (Ahat, "Papyrus Plant"): This nome's major city was Heliopolis, a vital religious center dedicated to the sun god Ra. Heliopolis was known for its great temple and obelisks.

    • Nome 9 (Tjeb-netjer, "The Divine Calf"): This nome included the important city of Athribis, dedicated to the god Horus Khenty-Khety.

    • Nome 10 (Per-Bast, "House of Bastet"): Associated with the goddess Bastet, with its major cult center in Bubastis, an important city in the delta.

    • Nome 11 (Seshet-Hor, "Lakes of Horus"): Known for its marshy areas and numerous lakes, this nome had significant agricultural and fishing activities.

    • Nome 12 (Sapi-res, "Foremost of the East"): This nome was crucial for its strategic location and trade routes connecting Egypt with the Near East.

    • Nome 13 (Sepdu, "Per-Sepdu"): Associated with the god Sepdu and known for its strategic military and trade importance.

    • Nome 14 (Uatch-ur, "The Great Green"): Named for its lush vegetation, reflecting the fertile land of the delta.

    • Nome 15 (Anedj-tawy, "Protector of the Two Lands"): Played a significant role in the political and military defense of Lower Egypt.

    • Nome 16 (Heru-shef, "Horus the Chief"): Another nome with strong religious associations, often tied to the worship of Horus.

    • Nome 17 (Per-Atum, "House of Atum"): Included the city of Heliopolis, an important religious center dedicated to the sun god Atum.

    • Nome 18 (Mesen, "Harpist Nome"): Known for its cultural contributions, particularly in music and the arts.

    • Nome 19 (Abedju, "Abydos Nome"): While Abydos is more famously associated with Upper Egypt, there is also a nome by this name in Lower Egypt, reflecting its broad cultural influence.

    • Nome 20 (Mareotis, "Lake Mareotis"): Named after the large lake in the region, important for its fishing and trade activities.

The nomes of Lower Egypt were essential for the administrative organization and cultural richness of ancient Egypt, each contributing uniquely to the civilization's development and legacy.

Lower Egypt

See Lower Egypt

NumberEgyptian NameCapital CityModern NameTranslation
1Aneb-HetchIneb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis)Mit RahinaWhite Walls
2KhensuKhem (Letopolis)AusimCow's Thigh
3AhmentImu (Apis)Kom El HisnWest
4Sapi-ResPtkhekaTantaSouthern Shield
5Sap-MeheZau (Sais)Sa El HagarNorthern Shield
6KhasetKhasu (Xois)SakhaMountain Bull
7A-ment(Hermopolis Parva, Metelis)DamanhurWest Harpoon
8A-btTjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom)Tell al-MaskhutaEast Harpoon
9AtiDjed (Busiris)Abu Sir BaraAndjeti
10Ka-khemHut-hery-ib (Athribis)Banha (Tell Atrib)Black Bull
11Ka-hesebTaremu (Leontopolis)Tell El UrydamHeseb Bull
12Theb-kaTjebnutjer (Sebennytos)SamanudCalf and Cow
13Heq-AtIunu (Heliopolis)MateriyaProspering Sceptre
14Khent-abtTjaru (Sile, Tanis)Tell Abu SefaEastmost
15TehutBa'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva)BaqliyaIbis
16KhaDjedet (Mendes)Tell El RubFish
17SemabehdetSemabehdet (Diospolis Inferior)Tell El BalamunThe Throne
18Am-KhentPer-Bastet (Bubastis)Tell Bastah (near Zagazig)Prince of the South
19Am-PehuDja'net (Leontopolis Tanis)Tell Nebesha or San El HagarPrince of the North
20SopduPer-SopduSaft El HinnaPlumed Falcon


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