Cultures > Assyria


Egypt History - Egyptian Chapter Decoration


Assyria was a powerful Mesopotamian kingdom and empire that existed in various forms from the late 25th century BCE until its collapse in the 7th century BCE. Its interactions with ancient Egypt were marked by periods of both conflict and cooperation, influenced by the shifting political and military landscapes of the Near East. Here's an overview of Assyria and its interactions with ancient Egypt:

Overview of Assyria

  1. Geographical Location:

    • Assyria was centered in the northern part of Mesopotamia, primarily in modern-day northern Iraq.
    • Key cities included Ashur (the religious and original capital), Nineveh, and Nimrud.
  2. Historical Periods:

    • Old Assyrian Period (circa 2025–1378 BCE): Characterized by the establishment and growth of Assyrian city-states and trade networks.
    • Middle Assyrian Period (circa 1365–1056 BCE): Marked by the expansion of Assyria into a regional power under kings like Ashur-uballit I and Tukulti-Ninurta I.
    • Neo-Assyrian Period (circa 911–609 BCE): The peak of Assyrian power, with significant territorial expansion and centralized administration under kings like Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, and Ashurbanipal.
  3. Society and Culture:

    • Assyrian society was highly militarized, with a strong emphasis on warfare and conquest.
    • Assyrian art and architecture were notable for their grandeur and detail, particularly in palace reliefs and monumental buildings.

Interactions with Ancient Egypt

  1. Early Contacts:

    • Early interactions between Assyria and Egypt were limited, primarily involving indirect trade through intermediaries in the Levant.
    • Both civilizations were aware of each other and respected each other as major powers in the ancient Near East.
  2. Diplomatic Relations and Trade:

    • During periods of relative peace, Assyria and Egypt engaged in diplomatic exchanges and trade. Assyrian records mention diplomatic gifts and envoys sent to and from Egypt.
    • Goods such as metals, textiles, and luxury items were traded between the two regions, facilitating cultural exchange.
  3. Military Conflicts and Alliances:

    • The Neo-Assyrian Period saw more direct military interactions between Assyria and Egypt, often driven by the strategic importance of controlling the Levant.
    • Conflict with Egypt: Assyria and Egypt often found themselves on opposite sides in regional conflicts. For example, the Egyptian Pharaoh Shoshenq I (biblical Shishak) supported local rulers in the Levant who opposed Assyrian expansion.
    • Alliance with Egypt: In the late 8th century BCE, Assyria and Egypt briefly aligned against the growing power of the Kushite (Nubian) rulers of the 25th Dynasty in Egypt. However, this alliance was short-lived.
  4. Assyrian Conquest of Egypt:

    • The most significant period of direct conflict occurred during the reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal in the 7th century BCE.
    • Esarhaddon's Campaigns: In 671 BCE, Esarhaddon launched a successful campaign against Egypt, defeating the Kushite Pharaoh Taharqa and capturing the city of Memphis. This marked the beginning of Assyrian control over parts of Egypt.
    • Ashurbanipal's Campaigns: Ashurbanipal continued his father's efforts, conducting further military campaigns to maintain Assyrian dominance in Egypt. He faced resistance from Taharqa's successor, Tantamani, but eventually secured control over the region.
  5. Assyrian Rule in Egypt:

    • Assyrian control over Egypt was relatively short-lived, lasting less than a decade. The Assyrians established local vassal rulers, such as Necho I, to govern on their behalf.
    • The Assyrian presence in Egypt weakened due to internal struggles within the empire and ongoing resistance from native Egyptian forces and the resurgent Kushite rulers.
  6. Decline of Assyrian Influence:

    • By the late 7th century BCE, Assyrian influence in Egypt waned as the empire faced increasing pressure from external enemies, including the Medes, Babylonians, and Scythians.
    • The fall of Nineveh in 612 BCE and the subsequent collapse of the Assyrian Empire marked the end of Assyrian control in the region. Egypt regained independence and eventually fell under the control of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.


The interactions between Assyria and ancient Egypt were characterized by periods of both conflict and cooperation. The two powers engaged in diplomatic and trade relations, but their most significant interactions occurred during the Neo-Assyrian Period, when Assyria's military campaigns brought it into direct conflict with Egypt. Assyrian control over Egypt was brief, and the complex relationship between these two great civilizations left a lasting impact on the political and cultural landscape of the ancient Near East.


Sabalico Logo
Sabalytics Logo
World Map Logo
rStatistics Logo
Time Zone Logo
Galaxy View Logo
Periodic Table Logo
My Location Logo
Weather Track Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website Tools Logo
Image Tools Logo
Color Tools Logo
Text Tools Logo
Finance Tools Logo
File Tools Logo
Data Tools Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo